HyFlex CM : Tip Evaluation (1st 3mm)

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DETAILS:

FILE NAME: HyFlex CM
COMPANY: Coltene
MANUFACTURER: D&S Dental
MADE IN: USA
WEBSITE: HyFlexCM.com

 

CHARACTERISTICS:

SIZE: 25/04
FLUTES: 3
SPIRALS PER 16MM: 2.4
HELIX ANGLE: 8.3º (at apical 1/3) [fig. 2]
CUTTING ANGLE: (-)35º [fig. 1]
DEBRIS REMOVING AREA: 52% [fig. 1]
ROTATION TO FAILURE: 860º
PEAK TORQUE AT FAILURE: 1.93 gf/cm
60 ̊ DEFLECTION: 3.97 g
PLASTIC DEFORMATION: 0º
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO CIRCUMFERENCE AREA: 32%
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO FILE X-SECTION AREA: 67%

 

DISCUSSION:

  • The Hyflex is heat-treated. The result is a very flexible file with little memory. However the rotation to failure and the peak torque at failure is low when compared to most files.

    Tip SEM

    Tip SEM

    Fig. 1

    Fig. 1

    Fig. 2

    Fig. 2

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SEMs are provided by Dr. Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Professor and Senior Executive Associate Dean for Research Director, Bioscience Research Center University of Tennessee Health Science Center

     

Exo Endo : Tip Evaluation (1st 3mm)

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DETAILS:

FILE NAME: Exo Endo
COMPANY: NanoEndo, LLC
MANUFACTURER: D&S Dental
MADE IN: USA
WEBSITE: NanoEndo.com

 

CHARACTERISTICS:

SIZE: 25/04
FLUTES: 3; changes to 4
SPIRALS PER 16MM: 2.3
HELIX ANGLE: 9º (25º at handle end) [fig. 2]
CUTTING ANGLE: (-)33º [fig. 1]
DEBRIS REMOVING AREA: 52% [fig. 1]
ROTATION TO FAILURE: 535º
PEAK TORQUE AT FAILURE: 5.06 gf/cm
60 ̊ DEFLECTION: 7.4 g
PLASTIC DEFORMATION: 0º
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO CIRCUMFERENCE AREA: 24%
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO FILE X-SECTION AREA: 66%

 

DISCUSSION:

  • The EXO ends file is comparatively favorable for rotation to failure and peak torque at failure.

    Tip SEM

    Tip SEM

    Fig. 1

    Fig. 1

    Fig. 2

    Fig. 2

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SEMs are provided by Dr. Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Professor and Senior Executive Associate Dean for Research Director, Bioscience Research Center University of Tennessee Health Science Center

     

Twisted File : Tip Evaluation (1st 3mm)

DETAILS:

FILE NAME: Twisted File
COMPANY: Kerr Sybron
MANUFACTURER: Kerr Sybron
MADE IN: USA
WEBSITE: kerrdental.eu.com

 

CHARACTERISTICS:

SIZE: 25/04
FLUTES: 3
SPIRALS PER 16MM: 4
HELIX ANGLE: 10º (at apical 1/3) [fig. 2]
CUTTING ANGLE: (-)30º [fig. 1]
DEBRIS REMOVING AREA: 55% [fig. 1]
ROTATION TO FAILURE: 805º
PEAK TORQUE AT FAILURE: 15.3 gf/cm
60 ̊ DEFLECTION: 1.42 g
PLASTIC DEFORMATION: 0º
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO CIRCUMFERENCE AREA: 28%
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO FILE X-SECTION AREA: 62%

 

DISCUSSION:

  • Unlike other files tested, the TF files are ground parallel to its long axis, along the length of its working surface. Other files are ground more perpendicular to their long axis during which the microscopic ground grooves form micro cracks that are concurrent with the cleavage planes of the metal. This significantly increases the file’s resistance to torsional failure, not to be confused with stress resistance, during performance.

    Tip SEM

    Fig. 1

    Fig. 2

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SEMs are provided by Dr. Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Professor and Senior Executive Associate Dean for Research Director, Bioscience Research Center University of Tennessee Health Science Center

     

GT Series-X : Tip Evaluation (1st 3mm)

DETAILS:

FILE NAME: GT Series-X
COMPANY: Dentsply Tulsa Dental
MANUFACTURER: Dentsply Tulsa Dental
MADE IN: USA
WEBSITE: tulsadentalspecialties.com

 

CHARACTERISTICS:

SIZE: 20/04
FLUTES: 3
SPIRALS PER 16MM: 3.3
HELIX ANGLE: 14º [fig. 2]
CUTTING ANGLE: (-)30º [fig. 1]
DEBRIS REMOVING AREA: 22% [fig. 1]
ROTATION TO FAILURE: 470º
PEAK TORQUE AT FAILURE: 4.76 gf/cm
60 ̊ DEFLECTION: 1.42 g
PLASTIC DEFORMATION: 0º
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO CIRCUMFERENCE AREA: 56%
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO FILE X-SECTION AREA: 72%

 

DISCUSSION:

  • The M-wire obviously makes a difference in enhancing its rotation
    to failure considering the file’s large x-section area relative to its circumference. However, this enhancement was accompanied with a diminished resistance to torsional failure.

    Tip SEM

    Fig. 1

    Fig. 2

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SEMs are provided by Dr. Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Professor and Senior Executive Associate Dean for Research Director, Bioscience Research Center University of Tennessee Health Science Center

     

ProTaper Universal : Tip Evaluation (1st 3mm)

DETAILS:

FILE NAME: ProTaper Universal
COMPANY: Dentsply Tulsa Dental
MANUFACTURER: Dentsply Tulsa Dental
MADE IN: USA
WEBSITE: tulsadentalspecialties.com

 

CHARACTERISTICS:

SIZE: X2
FLUTES: 3 (convex)
SPIRALS PER 16MM: 3
HELIX ANGLE: 20º [fig. 2]
CUTTING ANGLE: (-)31º [fig. 1]
DEBRIS REMOVING AREA: 35.8% [fig. 1]
ROTATION TO FAILURE: 358º
PEAK TORQUE AT FAILURE: 11 gf/cm
60 ̊ DEFLECTION: 1.42 g
PLASTIC DEFORMATION: 0º
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO CIRCUMFERENCE AREA: 54%
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO FILE X-SECTION AREA: 83%

 

DISCUSSION:

  • The resistance to torsional failure was relatively high compared to triangular x-sections. This is due to the greater x-sectional area of convex flutes. The cutting angle is less aggressive and requires greater torsion during performance.

    Tip SEM

    Fig. 1

    Fig. 2

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SEMs are provided by Dr. Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Professor and Senior Executive Associate Dean for Research Director, Bioscience Research Center University of Tennessee Health Science Center

     

ProTaper Next : Tip Evaluation (1st 3mm)

ProTaperNextX2Full

DETAILS:

FILE NAME: ProTaper Next X2
COMPANY: Dentsply Tulsa Dental
MANUFACTURER: Dentsply Tulsa Dental
MADE IN: USA
WEBSITE: tulsadentalspecialties.com

 

CHARACTERISTICS:

SIZE: X2 (.25 tip/0,04-1.2 taper)
FLUTES: 4 (rectangular)
SPIRALS PER 16MM: 3
HELIX ANGLE: 18.5º [fig. 2]
CUTTING ANGLE: (-)45º [fig. 1]
DEBRIS REMOVING AREA: 46.4% [fig. 1]
ROTATION TO FAILURE: 640º (bound 5.7mm from tip)
PEAK TORQUE AT FAILURE: 10.42 gf/cm
60 ̊ DEFLECTION: 3.97 g
PLASTIC DEFORMATION: 0º
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO CIRCUMFERENCE AREA: 42.9%
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO FILE X-SECTION AREA: 78%

 

DISCUSSION:

  • Since the x-section is rectangular, the cutting angle meets the surface to be cut at a 45 degree angle and one might expect very little canal enlargement to occur. However, cam action resulting from the center of rotation being different from the center of mass enhances its cutting ability. Near the tip end, the file’s relatively small core area as compared to its x-sectional area and circumference, makes it more susceptible to separation (especially when sufficient torque is applied for enlargement at its midsection and handle end).

    Tip SEM

    Fig. 1

    Fig. 2

    Fig. 2

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SEMs are provided by Dr. Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Professor and Senior Executive Associate Dean for Research Director, Bioscience Research Center University of Tennessee Health Science Center

     

ProTaper Gold S1 : Tip Evaluation (1st 3mm)

ProTaperGoldS1Full

DETAILS:

FILE NAME: ProTaper Gold S1
COMPANY: Dentsply Tulsa Dental
MANUFACTURER: Dentsply Tulsa Dental
MADE IN: USA
WEBSITE: tulsadentalspecialties.com

 

CHARACTERISTICS:

SIZE: S1 (0.17 tip with a progressive taper)
FLUTES: 3 (convex triangle)
SPIRALS PER 16MM: 3
HELIX ANGLE: 19.1º [fig. 2]
CUTTING ANGLE: (-)31º [fig. 1]
DEBRIS REMOVING AREA: 35.8% [fig. 1]
ROTATION TO FAILURE: 310º
PEAK TORQUE AT FAILURE: 22.35 gf/cm
60 ̊ DEFLECTION: 5.39 g
PLASTIC DEFORMATION: 0º
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO CIRCUMFERENCE AREA: 54%
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO FILE X-SECTION AREA: 83%

 

DISCUSSION:

  • The ProTaper series of files have tapers that are not constant along the working length making comparative testing difficult. It is worth noting that the core area relative to the file’s circumference and the file’s x-section is comparatively high when measured against all other files. That is consistent with the relative high peak torque during rotation to failure. On a negative note this feature also accounts for the small debris removal area and negative cutting angle both contributing to high torsional stress during canal enlargement.

    Tip SEM

    Tip SEM

    Fig. 1

    Fig. 2

    Fig. 2

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SEMs are provided by Dr. Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Professor and Senior Executive Associate Dean for Research Director, Bioscience Research Center University of Tennessee Health Science Center

     

BioRaCe : Tip Evaluation (1st 3mm)

BioRaCeSEM_FullComposite

DETAILS:

FILE NAME: BioRaCe
COMPANY: Brasseler USA
MANUFACTURER: FKG Dentaire
MADE IN: Switzerland
WEBSITE: brasselerusadental.com

 

CHARACTERISTICS:

SIZE: 25/04
FLUTES: 3
SPIRALS PER 16MM: 3.33
HELIX ANGLES: 28.4º & 4.6º [fig. 2]
CUTTING ANGLE: (-)30º [fig. 1]
DEBRIS REMOVING AREA: 55% [fig. 1]
ROTATION TO FAILURE: 1060º
PEAK TORQUE AT FAILURE: 61.06 gf/cm
60 ̊ DEFLECTION: 4.82 g
PLASTIC DEFORMATION: 0º
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO CIRCUMFERENCE AREA: 28%
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO FILE X-SECTION AREA: 62%

 

DISCUSSION:

  • Note that the nearly non-spiraled sections along the working length provide an area that can become more easily spiraled when rotational torsion is applied. The result is relatively high rotation to failure but added no significant increase in peak torque. It is also important to remember that 3 rotations, once bound, only requires 0.6 seconds to fail while rotating at 300 rpm.

    Tip SEM

    Tip SEM

    Fig. 1

    Fig. 2

    Fig. 2

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    SEMs are provided by Dr. Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Professor and Senior Executive Associate Dean for Research Director, Bioscience Research Center University of Tennessee Health Science Center

     

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Vortex Blue : Tip Evaluation (1st 3mm)

VortexBlueFullView

DETAILS:

FILE NAME: Vortex Blue
COMPANY: Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties
MANUFACTURER: Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties
MADE IN: USA
WEBSITE: tulsadentalspecialties.com

 

CHARACTERISTICS:

SIZE: 25/04
FLUTES: 3 (triangular)
SPIRALS PER 16MM: 4
HELIX ANGLE: 23º [fig. 2]
CUTTING ANGLE: (-)34º [fig. 1]
DEBRIS REMOVING AREA: 45% [fig. 1]
ROTATION TO FAILURE: 510º
PEAK TORQUE AT FAILURE: 63.08 gf/cm
60 ̊ DEFLECTION: 2.16 g
PLASTIC DEFORMATION: 0º
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO CIRCUMFERENCE AREA: 55%
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO FILE X-SECTION AREA: 69%

 

DISCUSSION:

  • Most interesting from the results of testing is the difference in properties of the Vortex Blue compared to those of the Sequence file; especially since both have the same cross-sectional configuration and helix angles. Contrary to the manufacturer’s claims, the Vortex Blue’s resistance to torsion was not enhanced, but instead appears to be substantially less than that of the Sequence file.

 

TIP SEM

TIP SEM

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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K3 : Tip Evaluation (1st 3mm)

K3FullView

DETAILS:

FILE NAME: SybronEndo
COMPANY: SybronEndo
MANUFACTURER: SybronEndo
MADE IN: Mexico
WEBSITE: sybronendo.com

 

CHARACTERISTICS:

SIZE: 25/04
FLUTES: 3 (asymmetrical)
SPIRALS PER 16MM: 7
HELIX ANGLE: 31º [fig. 2]
CUTTING ANGLE: VARIES [fig. 1]
DEBRIS REMOVING AREA: 34% [fig. 1]
ROTATION TO FAILURE: 270º
PEAK TORQUE AT FAILURE: 89.87 gf/cm
60 ̊ DEFLECTION: 3.86 g
PLASTIC DEFORMATION: 0º
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO CIRCUMFERENCE AREA: 66%
FILE CORE AREA RELATIVE TO FILE X-SECTION AREA: 58%

 

DISCUSSION:

  • While the K3 has excellent side cutting ability, it is one of the least flexible files. Consequently, the K3 file is best used to enlarge the coronal aspects of a canal or for preparing straighter canals.
  • The minimum rotation to failure is noticeable. However, it should be noted that a file rotating at 500 rpm will complete 3 revolutions in less than 1/4 of a second and no file we’ve tested yet has withstood 3 full rotations without separating.
  • Peak torque at failure is a more important consideration and the K3 compares favorably to other files.

 

Tip SEM

TIP SEM

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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